Under the Legislative Assembly, which was in power before the proclamation of the First Republic, France was engaged in war with Prussia and Austria. His mother — Blanche of Castile — was the effective power as regent (although she did not formally use the title). The second colonial empire came to an end after the loss in later wars of Vietnam (1954) and Algeria (1962), and relatively peaceful decolonizations elsewhere after 1960. He lost all his allies and recklessly declared war on a much more powerful Prussia in 1870; he was captured and deposed. By 2004, France had the second highest birthrate in Europe, behind only Ireland.[203][204]. [77], After July 1794, most civilians henceforth ignored the Republican calendar and returned to the traditional seven-day weeks. Examveda . [196], At its apex, it was one of the largest empires in history. Lend Lease had barely restarted When it was unexpectedly handed in August 1945. Gaul remained under Roman control for centuries and Celtic culture was then gradually replaced by Gallo-Roman culture. Late that night, indeed dozens of Girondins had resigned and left the convention. Lavoisier also formulated the law of Conservation of mass and discovered oxygen and hydrogen. In August 1788, the King agreed to convene the Estates-General in May 1789. Women gained the right to vote. On 14 July 1789, the insurgents set their eyes on the large weapons and ammunition cache inside the Bastille fortress, which also served as a symbol of royal tyranny. France - France - The First French Republic: The insurrection of August 10, 1792, did not, of course, stop the Prussian advance on the capital. A. J. P. Taylor is blunt: "he ruined France as a great power."[150][151][152]. Catholics were for the most part anti-dreyfusard. [264], The May 1958 seizure of power in Algiers by French army units and French settlers opposed to concessions in the face of Arab nationalist insurrection ripped apart the unstable Fourth Republic. [46], Two years later, in 1740, war broke out over the Austrian succession, and France seized the opportunity to join the conflict. In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille) on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, making it the oldest city of France. In six weeks of savage fighting the French lost 90,000 men.[230][231]. This meant that all fifty four orders were dissolved and about 20,000 members immediately left France, many for Spain. The Truce of Ulm (1647) and the Peace of Westphalia (1648) brought an end to the war. When the Legislative Assembly met at the beginning of October 1849, Passy proposed an income tax to help balance the finances of France. In practise, Masses and rituals continued. ", Philip Nord "The welfare state in France, 1870–1914. The Communists had largely dominated the Resistance inside France, but cooperated closely with the government in 1944–45, on orders from the Kremlin. The system did help modernize the parts of rural France it reached, but it did not help create local industrial centers. Britain's success in the Seven Years' War had allowed them to eclipse France as the leading colonial power. The next year a French expedition to Japan was formed to help the Tokugawa shogunate to modernize its army. In November 1942 all of Vichy France was finally occupied by German forces. The working class in the cities was a small element, and had been freed of many restrictions imposed by medieval guilds. A number of factors contributed to the rise of the French monarchy. 1882–1896: stagnation; [citation needed], The period known as the French Consulate began with the coup of 18 Brumaire in 1799. This emerging dynasty, whose members were called the Robertines, were the predecessors of the Capetian Dynasty. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany in 1940. [252] France managed to regain its international status thanks to a successful production strategy, a demographic spurt, and technical and political innovations. The Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by Germany while the south was controlled until 1942 by the collaborationist Vichy government. [135] The king abdicated, and the French Second Republic was proclaimed. Nevertheless, French King Henry II severely persecuted Protestants under the Edict of Chateaubriand (1551) and when the French authorities complained about the missionary activities, the city fathers of Geneva disclaimed official responsibility. In exile in England he came to appreciate British thought and he popularized Isaac Newton in Europe. Imports of raw material were largely cut off, so most factories had shut down. Industrial policy was used to bolster French industries. [70], By the summer of 1793, most French departments in one way or another opposed the central Paris government, and in many cases 'Girondins', fled from Paris after 2 June, led those revolts. He founded the Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency, and he was elected in the latter role. The French built up an empire, especially in Africa and Indochina. He realized France could neither contain the much larger Germany by itself nor secure effective support from Britain or the League.[218]. The richest 10 percent of families owned between 80 and 90 percent of the wealth from 1810 to 1914. Over two million people died in two famines in 1693 and 1710. [71] The Vendéan army since October roaming through Brittany on 12 December 1793 again ran up against Republican troops and saw 10,000 of its rebels perish, meaning the end of this once threatening army.   Girondins On September 21, 1792 the National Assembly of France proclaimed that the country was now a republic. The British Royal Navy scored a major victory over France in 1782 at the Battle of the Saintes and France finished the war with huge debts and the minor gain of the island of Tobago. In: Margaret Bradley, "Scientific Education for a New Society The Ecole Polytechnique 1795–1830. By 1915 the war economy went into high gear, as millions of French women and colonial men replaced the civilian roles of many of the 3 million soldiers. France did not expect war in 1914, but when it came in August the entire nation rallied enthusiastically for two years. Their share then fell to about 60 percent, where it remained into the 21st century. This style became standard for most European cathedrals built in the late Middle Ages.[19]. [183], The 1882 school laws of Republican Jules Ferry set up a national system of public schools that taught strict puritanical morality but no religion. In April 1795, France concluded a peace agreement with Prussia,[81] later that year peace was agreed with Spain. Music, theater, science, and philosophy all flourished. The First Crusade was composed almost entirely of Frankish Princes. One of his major promises to the peasantry and other groups was that there would be no new taxes. In March 2012, a Muslim radical named Mohammed Merah shot three French soldiers and four Jewish citizens, including children in Toulouse and Montauban. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. A renewed fear of anti-revolutionary action prompted further violence, and in the first week of September 1792, mobs of Parisians broke into the city's prisons, killing over half of the prisoners. Toward this end, Hippolyte Passy was appointed Finance Minister. Gordon Wright says, "Frenchmen were, on the whole, well governed, prosperous, contented during the 15-year period; one historian even describes the restoration era as 'one of the happiest periods in [France's] history. But they rallied and defeated the greatest German offensive, which came in spring 1918, then rolled over the collapsing invaders. [125] The paintings of Eugène Delacroix set the standards for romantic art. The population grew from 41 million in 1946, to 50 million in 1966, and 60 million by 1990. Robert II, as King of the Franks, met Emperor Henry II in 1023 on the borderline. In recognition of his successes and his political support for the Papacy, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans, or Roman Emperor in the West, by Pope Leo III in 800. From 1925 until his death in 1932, Aristide Briand, as prime minister during five short intervals, directed French foreign policy, using his diplomatic skills and sense of timing to forge friendly relations with Weimar Germany as the basis of a genuine peace within the framework of the League of Nations. He had been asked by the Spanish Cortes to accept the vacant throne of Spain. Louis IX was now the most important landowner of France, adding to his royal title. France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, Italy, Japan, the United States and smaller allies against Germany and the Central Powers. The dynasty established by Hugh Capet continued uninterrupted until 1328, and the laws of primogeniture ensured orderly successions of power. The Second Coalition was beaten and peace was settled in two distinct treaties: the Treaty of Lunéville and the Treaty of Amiens. Peace was fragile, and war broke out again between France and the Dutch Republic in the Franco-Dutch War (1672–78). Capet had been "Duke of the Franks" and then became "King of the Franks" (Rex Francorum). Only two countries remained neutral in the war: Sweden and Portugal, and Napoleon then looked toward the latter.   Thermidorians, Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}48°52′00″N 2°19′59″E / 48.86667°N 2.33306°E / 48.86667; 2.33306, Significant civil and political events by year, ("Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death"). The Republicans detested the church for its political and class affiliations; for them, the church represented outmoded traditions, superstition and monarchism. While the French kings were struggling against the Plantagenets, the Church called for the Albigensian Crusade. But no Convention member sympathized, they just told the women to return home. Jules Hardouin Mansart became France's most important architect of the period, bringing the pinnacle of French Baroque architecture. Philip III became king when Saint Louis died in 1270 during the Eighth Crusade. He angered Catholics when the pope lost most of his domains. [67], Introduction of a nationwide conscription for the army in February 1793 was the spark that in March made the Vendée, already rebellious since 1790 because of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy,[68] ignite into civil war against Paris. The Catholic system was reestablished by the Concordat of 1801 (signed with Pope Pius VII), so that church life returned to normal; the church lands were not restored, but the Jesuits were allowed back in and the bitter fights between the government and Church ended. The Kingdom was involved in two crusades under Saint Louis: the Seventh Crusade and the Eighth Crusade. The government won approval for its actions in a national referendum with 321,000 in favor and only 54,000 opposed.[166]. 1840–1860: fast growth; [98], Napoleon kept the system of conscription that had been created in the 1790s, so that every young man served in the army, which could be rapidly expanded even as it was based on a core of careerists and talented officers. Anti-clerical sentiment became much stronger than ever before, but was now based in certain elements of the middle class and indeed the peasantry as well. Finally peace was concluded in the Treaty of Paris (1763), and France lost its North American empire.[47]. The National Guard within Paris had become increasingly restive and defiant of the police, the army chief of staff, and even their own National Guard commanders. Ironically, Louis-Napoleon Boneparte was elected the President of this "second republic" in 1848, which he overthrew in a coup in 1851 (becoming emperor, Napoleon III) of the second French Empire.With the defeat of the French in the Franco-Prussian War in the early 1970's (Napoleon III was actually captured by the Germans in 1870) and the failure of the Paris Commune in 1871, the Empire was formally … The current republic was established after World War Two and the occupation of France. [101] The elementary schools received little attention. [citation needed] In the early 3rd century BC, some Belgae (Germani cisrhenani) conquered the surrounding territories of the Somme in northern Gaul after battles supposedly against the Armoricani (Gauls) near Ribemont-sur-Ancre and Gournay-sur-Aronde, where sanctuaries were found. It also provided manpower in the World Wars. [46], However, in 1733 another war broke in central Europe, this time about the Polish succession, and France joined the war against the Austrian Empire. The new elite — the "noblesse d'empire" — ridiculed the other group as an outdated remnant of a discredited regime that had led the nation to disaster. [69], With rivalry, even enmity, in the National Convention and its predecessors between so-called 'Montagnards' and 'Girondins' smouldering ever since late 1791, Jacques Hébert, Convention member leaning to the 'Montagnards' group, on 24 May 1793 called on the sans-culottes—the idealized simple, non-aristocratic, hard-working, upright, patriotic, republican, Paris labourers—to rise in revolt against the "henchmen of Capet [= the killed ex-king] and Dumouriez [= the defected general]". Answer: After the French Revolution of 1789, the powers of the king were reduced and France became a constitutional monarchy. An interim Provisional Government of the French Republic was quickly put into place by de Gaulle. Louis II de Bourbon had captured Franche-Comté, but in face of an indefensible position, Louis XIV agreed to the peace of Aachen. Including metropolitan France, the total amount of land under French sovereignty reached 11,500,000 km2 (4,400,000 sq mi) in 1920, with a population of 110 million people in 1939. [40], His reign began during the Thirty Years' War and during the Franco-Spanish war. The eastern realm, which would become Germany, elected the Saxon dynasty of Henry the Fowler. Great Britain had bought the Egyptian share from Isma'il Pasha and was the second-largest owner of the canal before the crisis. The intervention was a failure, and France accepted the American solution to the reparations issues, as expressed in the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan. ", Kaiser, Thomas E. "This Strange Offspring of Philosophie: Recent Historiographical Problems in Relating the Enlightenment to the French Revolution.". His support came from a wide section of the French public. François Crouzet has succinctly summarized the ups and downs of French per capita economic growth in 1815–1913 as follows:[116] The ultimate goal of the philosophers was human progress; by concentrating on social and material sciences, they believed that a rational society was the only logical outcome of a freethinking and reasoned populace. Berenson, Edward, and Vincent Duclert, eds. Although relieved of many of the old burdens, controls, and taxes, the peasantry was still highly traditional in its social and economic behavior. Although a king weak in power, Robert II's efforts were considerable. When in 1620 the Huguenots proclaimed a constitution for the 'Republic of the Reformed Churches of France', the chief minister Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642) invoked the entire powers of the state to stop it. With financial support from the church in Geneva, Calvin turned his enormous energies toward uplifting the French Protestant cause. The country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. Finally in the end he went to war with the Germans in 1870 when it was too late to stop German unification. However the monasteries with their vast land holdings and political power were gone; much of the land had been sold to urban entrepreneurs who lacked historic connections to the land and the peasants. [179], France had colonies in Asia and looked for alliances and found in Japan a possible ally. Henry III's allies in Brittany and Normandy fell down because they did not dare fight their king, who led the counterstrike himself. Germany was much better prepared militarily than any of the other countries involved, including France. Its turn never came again as the Orleanist faction rallied themselves to the Republic, behind Adolphe Thiers. The puppet emperor he put on the Mexican throne was overthrown and executed. France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the Viet Minh in 1954. During his visit to France, Iwakura Tomomi asked for French assistance in reforming Japan. In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. Louis XVI, by then a private citizen bearing his family name of Capet, was subsequently put on trial for crimes of high treason starting in December 1792. The Sixth Coalition was formed under British leadership. [171], While liberalism was individualistic and laissez-faire in Britain and the United States, in France liberalism was based instead on a solidaristic conception of society, following the theme of the French Revolution, Liberté, égalité, fraternité ("liberty, equality, fraternity"). Austria was quickly defeated, but instead of four new states a popular uprising united all of Italy under Piedmont. 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