French Legislative Assembly

Following the dissolution of the National Constituent Assembly on September 30, 1791, the Legislative Assembly was assembled. The organization operated under the French Constitution of 1791, which was a principle failure of a document. Maximilien Robespierre moved that no members of the National Constituent Assembly be allowed to serve in the Legislative Assembly, creating a power vacuum as well as much inexperience. The Assembly lasted less than a year and left France with an empty treasury, a collapsed army and navy and many misaddressed domestic problems. The Legislative Assembly became gridlocked due to the bipartisan problems present with the left-right political spectrum.

French National Convention

Following an insurrection by the Paris Commune on August 10, 1792, the Legislative Assembly suspended the powers of King Louis XVI and called for a new National Convention to draw up a new constitution. An election was held for all Frenchmen of 25 years or older by universal male suffrage. The National Convention was first brought into session on September 20, 1792. The first order of the body was to abolish the monarchy. It also established September 22 as the first day of the French Republic.

France’s Executive Directory

Following the National Convention, which established the French Constitution of 1795, 750 legislators were elected to two different councils: the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. Each house of the bicameral legislature had terms of three years. The Ancients were able to veto any legislation, which could only be initiated by the Five Hundred.

James J. Hill The Empire Builder

James J. Hill was born in 1838 in the small town of Eramosa Township in what-is-now Ontario. Due to a accident in his youth with an arrow, he was blinded in the right eye. While he had only nine years of formal schooling, he attended Rockwood Academy with much success. However, following the death of his father in 1852, he left school to begin working as a bookkeeper in Kentucky. After moving to St. Paul, Minnesota, Hill obtained work as a bookkeeper for a wholesale grocer. Eventually, he struck out on his own, providing wood to fuel Fort Snelling.

RT Rybak Mayor of Minneapolis

R.T. Rybak, born Raymond Thomas Rybak, Jr. on November 12, 1955, became mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota in 2001 after defeating Sharon Sayles Belton, the first female and African-American mayor of the city. Mayor Rybak successfully pulled off the victory without an endorsement from a major party and by running a populist campaign, resulting in a victory with 65 percent of the vote. This was the widest margin of victory for a challenger running against an incumbent in Minneapolis’s history. He took office in January 2002.

Mayor Rybak Celebrates at White Castle

According to a blog posting at, Mayor RT Rybak of Minneapolis, Minnesota celebrated his reelection by taking a trip to White Castle for some sliders. Apparently, he then freaked out on the military recruiters. Who reported this originally, I will never know, but if its true, its funny. Actually, I wouldn’t put it past […]

Pros and Cons of Public Smoking Bans

“Sorry, this is a non-smoking establishment.” Even in places without statewide smoking bans in public areas, this phrase has started to grow more and more common in recent years. This tide is very quickly changing as far as smoking goes, yet it wasn’t so long ago that nearly everyone was lighting up. Smoking is bad […]

Check Out My Black Eye!

A comparison between my childhood and America.